Osamu Takeuchi received his M.D. degree from Osaka University Medical school (Suita, Japan) in 1995. After clinical training, he entered the graduate school of medicine, Osaka University, where he started working on innate immunity with Prof. Shizuo Akira. He discovered that different Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize different microbial components and received Ph.D. degree. He subsequently completed postdoctoral training at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute under Prof. Stanley Korsmeyer. Then he became an assistant professor in Osaka University and worked on functional roles of TLR signaling molecules and RIG-I-like receptors in inflammation. In 2012, he moved to the Institute for Frontier Life and Medical Sciences, Kyoto University as a full professor and further moved to Graduate School of Medicine in 2018. He is currently focusing on the posttranscriptional regulation of immune and inflammatory responses modulating anti-cancer immunity particularly focusing on innate immunity.